Archivo del autor: Calidad de Carne CITA

Effect of Rearing System on the Straight and Branched Fatty Acids of Goat Milk and Meat of Suckling Kids

Goat meat is considered healthy because it has fewer calories and fat than meat from other traditional meat species. It is also rich in branched chain fatty acids that have health advantages when consumed. We studied the effects of maternal milk and milk replacers fed to suckling kids of four breeds on the straight and branched fatty acid compositions of their muscle. In addition, the proximal and fatty acid compositions of colostrum and milk were studied. Goat colostrum had more protein and fat and less lactose than milk. Goat milk is an important source of healthy fatty acids such as C18:1 c9 and C18:2 n–6. Suckling kid meat was also an important source of C18:1c9. Dairy goat breeds had higher percentages of trans monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and most of the C18:1 isomers but lower amounts of total MUFAs than meat breeds. However, these dairy kids had meat with a lower percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than meat kids. The meat of kids fed natural milk had higher amounts of CLA and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and lower amounts of n–6 fatty acids than kids fed milk replacers. Both milk and meat are a source of linoleic, α-linolenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic fatty acids, which are essential fatty acids and healthy long-chain fatty acids.

 

Foods-09-00471

 

 

Effect of High Pressure, Calcium Chloride and ZnOAg Nanoparticles on Beef Color and Shear Stress

This study investigates how the use of a combination of high-pressure treatment, steak marination and active packaging influences beef color and shear stress. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design was applied, including pressure, marination, packaging and storage time. Many significant interactions among factors were found, but the effects of pressure and marination were so high that the effect of packaging was almost undetectable. Independent of storage type, pressurized treatments presented higher values for both L* and hab than unpressurized treatments, and independent of pressure application, the increase in L* and hab with storage time was higher for marinated treatments than for unmarinated treatments. In unpressurized samples, marination provoked an increase in L, a and hab and a decrease in 𝐶∗ , whereas in pressurized samples, marination had no effect on color. Pressurized samples always showed higher values for shear stress (on average 71% higher) than unpressurized samples.

 

Foods-09-00179

 

 

 

 

Influence of the Use of Milk Replacers and pH on the Texture Profiles of Raw and Cooked Meat of Suckling Kids

The aim of this work was to study the texture profile of fresh and cooked longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle from suckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacers. Suckling male kids from eight goat breeds (Florida, FL; Cabra del Guadarrama, GU; Majorera, MA; Palmera, PL; Payoya, PY; Retinta, RE; Tinerfeña, TI; Verata, VE), all of single parturition, were raised with milk replacers (MR) or with natural milk from the dams (NM). The meat pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture profile analysis and chemical composition were determined. Kids were clustered  based on their pH by k-means clustering. The eect of the rearing system on the textural profile was
strongly modulated by breed. The values of Warner-Bratzler shear force and hardness found in these breeds under both rearing systems were very low. Hence, the toughness of very light suckling kids should not be a determining factor in choosing a breed or rearing system. Nevertheless, the use of milk replacers increased the presence of meat with high pH, which modified the textural parameters, decreasing the shear force but increasing cohesiveness and adhesiveness. Consequently, depending on the commercial strategy of the farm, the election of the breed and rearing system must be considered together.

 

Foods 8, 589

The Eect of Consumer Involvement in Light Lamb Meat on Behavior, Sensory Perception, and Health-Related Concerns

Involvement can explain behavioral consequences, such as consumer decision-making and consumption. The first aim of this study is to identify the profiles of consumers based on their involvement in light lamb meat. The second aim is to study the influence of involvement on consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, preferences, quality cues, and sensory perception regarding light lamb meat. Two consumer profiles are identified. The first cluster includes consumers who
enjoyed eating light lamb meat, were conscious of their self-image, and perceived the consequences
of poor choices; these consumers also perceived the probability of making an incorrect choice as high.
The second cluster includes consumers who truly loved eating lamb meat, were also conscious of
their self-image, and perceived the consequences of poor choices; however, these consumers were
confident in not making incorrect choices. Although both involvement-based profiles showed high
involvement in light lamb meat, it can be concluded that the second cluster had a higher involvement.
In general, the involvement-based profiles did not influence health-related attitudes, preferences,
or sensory perceptions of light lamb meat, while beliefs, behavior and quality cues were influenced
by involvement.

 

Nutrients

Plant-Derived Extracts Feed-Addition and Packaging Type Influence Consumer Sensory Perception of Pork

This paper investigates whether the combination of the addition of extracts derived from plants (plants derived extracts, PDE) to pork feedstu and the meat conservation conditions (packaging and time exposure) aect consumers’ perception of pork quality, studied by means of visual appraisal, purchase intention and a home test. The three PDE groups were control, garlic
extract and blended oil composed by carvacrol, timol, cynamic aldehide and eugenol extracts. Meat was packed in film, vacuum or modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging. A visual test was designed comprising a four-day storage step followed by a four-day exposure step in a refrigerated island display case. All studied eects influenced visual appraisal scores, being time exposure and packaging eects more noticeable than PDE or pig-sex eects. Meat from MAP scored higher than the rest. Scores decreased as exposure time increased, but this evolution was less perceptible in vacuum packaging and was faster for  meat from the garlic group. Only gender aected the visual appraisal scores, with women scoring higher than men. Neither PDE addition nor pig sex aected to purchase intention whereas both exposure time and packaging type did. A maximum of 2 days of exposure would  be recommended. In the home-test, meat from male pigs obtained higher scores than meat from female pigs, and none of the consumer-related eects influenced the given scores.

Nutrients

 

 

Carne de cerdo enriquecida en vitamina D: encuesta de percepción del consumidor

El enriquecimiento de la carne de cerdo con vitamina D es una estrategia con la que paliar su déficit en la población, especialmente en personas mayores. En este trabajo se investiga si los consumidores aragoneses estarían dispuestos a consumir una carne de cerdo enriquecida en vitamina D mediante la adición en el pienso de los animales de setas tratadas con luz UV. En las condiciones del presente experimento podemos concluir que la mayoría de los consumidores aragoneses prefiere una carne no enriquecida, el tratamiento con setas irradiadas es rechazado por la mayoría de los consumidores y los únicos consumidores que presentaron alguna disposición a comprar carne enriquecida con setas irradiadas fueron los más jóvenes.

 

Eurocarne 279, 84-90

REDUÇÃO DA EMISSÃO DE GÁS DE EFEITO ESTUFA COM DIETA PROVENIENTE DE SISTEMA DE INTEGRAÇÃO LAVOURA-PECUÁRIA

Objetivou-se com esse estudo mensurar a produção de metano entérico de dietas contendo silagens de milho em consórcio ou não com Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu e guandu-anão. Foram coletados inóculos de ovinos para determinar a produção de metano das dietas experimentais utilizando cromatógrafo gasoso, equipado com detector de ionização de chama. A produção de metano entérico, expressa em mL/g de matéria seca e em mL/kg de ganho de peso corporal de ovinos apresentou redução significativa quando utilizou-se a dieta proveniente do sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (consórcio de gramínea com leguminosa) em relação a dieta com silagem de milho. Conclui-se que é possível reduzir a produção de gás metano, permitindo sustentabilidade na agropecuária e produção eficiente.

 

CONCISUS 2019

EFECTO DE LA TASA DE INCLUSIÓN DE GUISANTE EN PIENSO DE CEBO EN LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA, OXIDACIÓN LIPIDICA Y DUREZA DE CARNE DE TERNEROS

La Unión Europea intenta mejorar el abastecimiento de proteína de origen vegetal para los piensos de cebo de animales. Para ello resulta de interés la introducción de leguminosas de producción local en sustitución de la soja que se importa de terceros países. Aunque la inclusión de guisante en la dieta de cebo de corderos es posible, dado que no tiene efectos negativos sobre los rendimientos (Blanco et al., 2018a) ni sobre la calidad de la carne (Blanco et al., 2018b), su uso en el cebo de terneros ha sido escasamente estudiado. Los rendimientos obtenidos con distintas proporciones en el pienso (Lardy et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2013) permiten un 40-60% de inclusión. Pocos estudios han evaluado su efecto sobre las características de la carne, aunque Jenkins et al. (2011) observaron una mejora en la terneza de la carne de novillas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de guisante (Pisum sativum) en el pienso de cebo de terneros sobre la composición química, dureza, y oxidación lipídica de la carne.

 

AIDA (2019), XVIII Jornadas sobre Producción Animal, 597-599

DETERMINACIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS POR NIRS EN CARNE LIOFILIZADA DE 15 RAZAS BOVINAS EUROPEAS

La espectroscopia en el infrarrojo cercano ha sido utilizada desde hace años en la industria debido a sus reconocidas ventajas como: rapidez, precisión y que no consume reactivos químicos. Su aplicación más importante ha sido la  determinación de la composición de materias primas en la industria   agroalimentaria. Por ejemplo, la industria cárnica usa esta tecnología para analizar la carne (Olivan et al., 2002; Prieto et al., 2006; Ripoll et al., 2008, 2018). Sin embargo, las calibraciones NIR pueden fallar cuando la sustancia a determinar está contenida en una matriz con gran porcentaje de agua, porque la absorción de las longitudes infrarrojas por parte de dicha agua es muy grande (Núñez-Sánchez et al. 2008). Así pues, eliminarla antes de la recogida del espectro puede mejorar la cuantificación de ciertas sustancias (Coppa et al., 2010; Meurens et al, 1987; Núñez-Sánchez et al., 2008; Ripoll et al., 2015). El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la capacidad de la espectroscopía NIR para estimar el perfil de ácidos grasos de carne liofilizada de 15 razas bovinas.

 

AIDA 2019, ITEA 609-611

INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE EXTRACTOS DERIVADOS DE PLANTAS EN EL PIENSO SOBRE LA CALIDAD INSTRUMENTAL DE LA CARNE DE CERDO: VIDA ÚTIL y PREVALENCIA DE SALMONELLA

Aragón presenta niveles de prevalencia de salmonelosis por encima de la media europea (Vico y Mainar-Jaime, 2009). Los extractos derivados de plantas (EDP) poseen propiedades antimicrobianas y actúan sobre el control de la infección por Salmonella spp. en condiciones naturales de explotación. Sin embargo, una dieta rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA), puede hacer la grasa de la carne más susceptible a la oxidación. Para frenar la oxidación se pueden utilizar antioxidantes sintéticos (Jensen et al,. 1997) pero los consumidores los rechazan debido a su posible toxicidad, por lo que hay un gran interés en antioxidantes de origen natural, entre los que se encuentran los derivados de las plantas (Haak et al,. 2008). Además, para conseguir alimentos seguros, éstos deben llegar al consumidor en las mejores condiciones posibles y para ello es fundamental el envasado. El vacío permite el alargamiento del periodo de conservación al impedir el crecimiento de bacterias aeróbicas (Gill y Jones, 1996), pero confiere a la carne un color pardo poco atractivo. En las atmósferas tipo skin no hay apenas pérdida de color y la oxidación se minimiza (Belcher, 2006).  El MAP mantiene el color rojo deseable de la carne y previene el crecimiento de patógenos, pero incrementa la oxidación (Renerre, 1986). El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar si la adición de extractos derivados de plantas a la dieta de los cerdos es capaz de alargar la vida útil y reducir la presencia de Salmonella de la carne envasada.

 

AIDA 2019, ITEA 606-608

LA REDUCCIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE GRASA Y SAL COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA OBTENER CHORIZOS MÁS SALUDABLES

La calidad sensorial y microbiológica de los embutidos depende de su formulación. La sal es un ingrediente esencial porque garantiza una textura y flavor y controla el crecimiento de microrganismos patógenos (Corral et al,. 2013). El consumo excesivo de sal es perjudicial para la salud humana pero reducir su cantidad en los embutidos puede originar una pérdida de calidad y causar problemas tecnológicos y de seguridad alimentaria (Ruusunen et al,. 2005). Por su parte, las grasas aportan untuosidad y jugosidad y contribuyen a la textura pero su consumo se asocia a la aparición de varias enfermedades. Se puede sustituir parcialmente el NaCl y la grasa por otros ingredientes, pero cualquier cambio en la formulación de un producto puede producir un rechazo en el consumidor, acostumbrado a unas características organolépticas determinadas para cada alimento. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la aceptación por parte de los consumidores de chorizos con menos grasa y menos sal.

 

AIDA 2019, ITEA 600-602

 

INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE EXTRACTOS DERIVADOS DE PLANTAS EN LA DIETA DE LOS CERDOS SOBRE LA VIDA ÚTIL Y LA PREVALENCIA DE SALMONELLA EN CHORIZOS CON BAJO CONTENIDO EN SAL

Aragón presenta niveles de prevalencia de salmonelosis por encima de la media europea (Vico y Mainar-Jaime, 2009). Los extractos derivados de plantas (EDP) poseen propiedades antimicrobianas y actúan sobre el control de la infección por Salmonella spp. en condiciones naturales de explotación. Sin embargo, los cambios en la dieta pueden producir cambios en la calidad sensorial de los productos cárnicos. La calidad sensorial es uno de los atributos más valorados por los consumidores y en los productos cárnicos depende de los aditivos, incluida la sal. La sal es un ingrediente fundamental en los embutidos fermentados curados porque garantiza una textura adecuada y controla el crecimiento de patógenos (Corral et al,. 2013). Su consumo excesivo de sal es perjudicial para la salud pero reducir el contenido en sal en los embutidos puede originar defectos tecnológicos o de seguridad alimentaria (Ruusunen et al,. 2005). El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la adición de extractos derivados de plantas a la dieta de los cerdos en la vida útil y la prevalencia de Salmonella en los chorizos con bajo contenido de sal.

 

AIDA 2019, ITEA 594-596

SOLUBILIDAD DEL COLÁGENO Y TEXTURA DE LA CARNE BOVINA COCINADA AL VACÍO: EFECTO DEL TIEMPO DE MADURACIÓN Y DE LA TEMPERATURA DE COCINADO

La cocina al vacío aporta nuevas texturas y mejora las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias. En carne se usan temperaturas bajas, típicamente entre 55ºC y 70ºC. Pero en ese rango hay trasformaciones estructurales en el músculo que afectan a la textura (Christensen et al,. 2013, Palka, 2003, Purslow et al,. 2016). El grado en que el calor afecta a la textura varía en función del tiempo de maduración y de la raza (Kolczak et al,. 2007, Panea et al,. 2010). El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar, en dos razas bovinas de aptitudes diferentes, los cambios que ocurren en la textura de la carne y la solubilidad del colágeno en función de la temperatura de cocinado y el tiempo de maduración.

 

AIDA 2019, ITEA 588-590

Volatile organic compounds and consumer preference for meat from suckling goat kids raised with natural or replacers milk

Most of European Union goats are slaughtered with carcase weights between 5 kg and 11 kg. Some farmers rear kids with milk replacers to produce cheese with the dams’ milk. The aim of this experiment was to study the volatile compounds (VOCs) of meat of suckling light kids reared with natural milk or milk replacers and to study the influence of consumers’ psychographic characteristics on the sensory preference for meat. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to identify the VOCs and consumers evaluated the flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. Thirty-five VOCs were detected and 44.3%, 25.1%, 6.9% and 2.3%, were aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones and alcohols, respectively. The influence of the rearing system on VOCs clearly depended on the breed. The use of milk replacers did not affect the percentage of linear aldehydes compared to the use of natural milk. However, the major aldehyde, hexanal (34.8%), was related to the use of natural milk and correlated positively with both the flavour (r¼0.21) and overall acceptability (r¼0.24). On the other hand, hydrocarbons such as hexane were related to MR, and 2-methyl-pentane and 3-methyl pentane were correlated with the acceptability of flavour (r¼0.22 and 0.25, respectively) and with the overall acceptability (r¼0.21 and 0.24). The 2-penthyl furan and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were correlated with the overall acceptability (r¼0.22 and 0.22, respectively). Therefore, the acceptability of meat from suckling kids fed natural milk was greater for older consumers and people with a moderate consumption
of meat.

 

Italian Journal Anim Sci1 18-1, 1259-1270

Web-based survey of consumer preferences for the visual appearance of meat from suckling kids

Most suckling kids are raised on farms oriented toward cheese production, and many goat farmers’ rear kids with milk replacers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consumer preferences for the visual appearance of meat from suckling kids reared with milk replacers or natural milk. Meat colour was the major criterion used to select meat. The meat of Cabra del Guadarrama reared with milk replacers was preferred by 72% of consumers and had a preferred
lightness and hue angle. The rearing system did not influence preference through the time of
display. Web-based surveys provided similar information to information recorded with live surveys
using actual products instead of pictures. Meat colour appears to be a recurring intrinsic
cue to assess consumer preference. In general, consumers preferred meat of light suckling kids
reared on milk replacers because this meat had a high lightness and hue angle as well as a
low chroma.

 

Italian Journal Anim Sci1 18-1, 1284-1293

Influencia de la reutilización del aceite del confitado del cordero lehcal en los atributos sensoriales

Dentro de la diversificación de productos de origen ovino encontramos el lechal confitado. Se estudió el efecto de la reutilización del aceite empleado en el confitado sobre los atributos sensoriales de producto. Además, se determinó el porcentaje de compuestos polares del aceite.

 

CyTA-CESIA 2019

 

Caracterización de perfiles aromáticos de cabritos lechales de las razas canarias Majorera, Palmera y Tinerfeña alimentados con leche natural y artificial

Se caracterizó el perfil de compuestos aromáticos de las tres razas antes y después del cocinado. En cada raza, la mitad de los animales había recibido leche natural de la madre y la otra mitad, un lactoreemplazante. Tanto raza com alimentación influyen en el perfil de compuestos aromáticos. Entre los compuestos encontrados destacan los hidrocarburos y los aldehidos, siendo el hexano y el hexanal los compuestos más abundantes.

 

CYTA-CESYA, 2019, pag 120

 

 

Alternativas comerciales para las piezas cárnicas de menor valor de vacas de desvieje: hamburguesas bajas en sal y grasa

Una estrategia para aumentar el valor de las vacas de desvieje es la maduración seca, pero como sólo se puede aplicar a piezas de primera, hay que buscar alternativas para las piezas de menor valor, como la falda. Las hamburguesas son un producto de gran aceptación por parte de los consumidores, pero es un producto percibido como poco saludable. Se puede cambiar su formulación sustituyendo algunos ingredientes por otros beneficiosos para la salud, consiguiendo un producto funcional.  El objetivo fue estudiar la aceptabilidad de los consumidores de hamburguesas con un perfil nutricional mejorado.

 

No se encontró efecto ni de la formulación ni del género ni de la edad. Se registraron muchos comentarios sobre fallos de textura. Por lo tanto, la sustitución de sal y/o grasa sería una alternativa siempre y cuando se ajuste la textura para asemejarla al lote control.

 

CYTA CESIA 2019, pag. 225

Enriquecimiento funcional de la carne de cerdo con vitamina D con el uso de hongos, champiñones, etc.

El proyecto pretendía investigar, mediante una revisión bibliográfica sistemática la posibilidad de obtener un producto funcional a través del manejo de la dieta de los cerdos. La hipótesis de trabajo es que añadiendo hongos con alto contenido en vitamina D en el pienso de los cerdos, se puede obtener una carne con características nutracéuticas sin perjudicar los índices productivos. Asimismo, se valorará la viabilidad económica de la propuesta, analizando el impacto que tendría en el precio del producto final. La viabilidad económica se estudiará asimismo abordando un estudio de consumidores para determinar los posibles nichos de mercado de este producto y la magnitud de la disponibilidad al pago.

 

Los principales resultados son:

  • El músculo del cerdo tiene, de forma natural, muy poca cantidad de vitamina D
  • La concentración de D3 en el músculo es mayor si en la dieta se suministra D3 que si se suministra 25-OH-D3 pero la concentración de 25-OH-D3 es mayor si se suministra en la dieta 25-OH-D3 que si se suministra D3. En general, resulta más eficiente utilizar 25-OH-D3 que D3
  • La cantidad de vitamina D3 acumulada cuando se suministra vitamina D2 proveniente de setas irradiadas es similar a la acumulada con una dieta que aporte D3 (0,3 µg) pero la cantidad de 25-OH-D3 acumulada con la dieta de setas y la actividad total de vitamina D es menor que la que se consigue con las dietas que aportan D3 o 25-OH-D
  • No existe una relación lineal entre la cantidad de vitamina aportada con la dieta y la concentración en músculo

 

Effects of breed-production system on collagen, textural, and sensory traits of 10 European beef cattle breeds

In the current study the collagen, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat from 712 yearling males of 10 local Spanish and French beef breeds raised in their typical production systems were described. The breed-production system affected collagen and texture variables but affected sensory variables only slightly. There was a large amount of intra breed-production system variation for all the variables. French breeds had lower values for collagen solubility (~12%) than Spanish breeds (~40%). Stress (WB) varied from 36 N/cm2 in Casina to 44 N/cm2 in Salers, whereas compression stress at 80% ranged from 35 N/cm2 in Asturiana de los Valles to 40 N/cm2 in Salers. Oven cooking resulted in higher cooking losses (24%) than cooking on a grill (12%). Cooking losses increased as the grill temperature increased. Numerous significant correlations were found among variables. Carcass weight is associated with all the collagen and texture variables. Correlation coefficients among texture and collagen variables were statistically significant and these correlation coefficients were in general higher for solubility percentage
than for total collagen content, highlighting the importance of the solubility of collagen rather
than total collagen in determining meat textural properties.

 

J. Sensory Studies, 49, 528-535

The effect of carcass weight on fatness and muscle and fat colour of male Ojinegra de Teruel light lambs

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increases in lamb carcass weight in 1-kg steps from 8 to 11 kg on carcass fatness, muscle colour, subcutaneous and renal fat colour, tissue composition of the thoracic limb, and intramuscular fatty acid composition. Sixty-two carcasses from Ojinegra de Teruel male lambs fed concentrates ad libitum and barley straw were used. Both carcass scores and renal fat weight increased with carcass weight
(P = 0.0001), but the percentage increase in renal fat weight was twice that of fat scores. Renal fat was prone to store carotenoids earlier than caudal fat, resulting in increased chroma. With increasing carcass weight, muscle colour became less light (decreased L* (P = 0.0001) and an increased in chroma scores (P = 0.001). Increments of 1 kg of carcass weight led to noticeable changes in the M. rectus abdominis colour, except at the increment from 10 kg to 11 kg. Slaughtering lambs at light weights was found to be advisable because renal fat is not a valuable part of the carcass. The lean percentage of the thoracic limb did not increase with carcass weight, as the increased muscle : bone ratio (P = 0.0001) was offset by an increased fat percentage (especially the intermuscular fat %). Changes with increasing carcass weight in the proportions of the main fatty acids in intramuscular fat were small. Moreover, intramuscular fat did not change in quantity or quality. However, when selling carcasses at heavier weights is preferred, achieving carcasses of 11 kg rather than 10 kg was found
to be advisable because the deposition of fat in both was similar. Breeds that deposit fat earlier than the breed used in this study should be fed low-energy diets to improve carcass quality. This feeding strategy could also be considered if fat deposition differs between sexes.

 

Animal Production Science 59, 1168-1175

The Effect of Consumer Involvement in Light Lamb Meat on Behavior, Sensory Perception, and Health-Related Concerns

Involvement can explain behavioral consequences, such as consumer decision-making and consumption. The first aim of this study is to identify the profiles of consumers based on their involvement in light lamb meat. The second aim is to study the influence of involvement on consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, preferences, quality cues, and sensory perception regarding light lamb meat. Two consumer profiles are identified. The first cluster includes consumers who enjoyed eating light lamb meat, were conscious of their self-image, and perceived the consequences of poor choices; these consumers also perceived the probability of making an incorrect choice as high. The second cluster includes consumers who truly loved eating lamb meat, were also conscious of their self-image, and perceived the consequences of poor choices; however, these consumers were confident in not making incorrect choices. Although both involvement-based profiles showed high involvement in light lamb meat, it can be concluded that the second cluster had a higher involvement. In general, the involvement-based profiles did not influence health-related attitudes, preferences, or sensory perceptions of light lamb meat, while beliefs, behavior and quality cues were influenced by involvement.

 

Nutrients

Effect of the rearing system on the color of four muscles of suckling kids

Most suckling kids are raised on farms for cheese production, and many goat farmers rear kids with milk replacers. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of milk replacers on the color of four muscles. A total of 246 suckling kids of eight breeds were slaughtered to achieve carcasses of 5 kg. The color of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and longissimus thoracis muscles was measured with a spectrophotometer, and CIELab  coordinates were registered. In addition, the pH of longissimus thoracis was measured. The effect of the rearing system (RS) on the color of the studied muscles is strongly modulated by breed. In general terms, there are two groups of kids according to the color of meat. The first group has great lightness and hue angle including Malagueña, Palmera, and Tinerfeña fed natural and artificial milk. The second group with great redness includes Retinta, Payoya, and Verata fed natural and artificial milk together with Florida fed natural milk and Cabra del Guadarrama fed milk replacers. Hence, farms should consider selecting a breed and RS together. Most of the kid meat with high pH comes from kids raised on milk replacers. Because artificial RSs use very early weaning, which might induce a high pH and dark meat, two artificial
rearing strategies can be proposed. The first strategy is to choose less sensitive breeds that produce meat with a normal pH. The second strategy is to restrict suckling of natural milk but minimize separation from the mother.

 

Food Science & Nutrition, 00, 1-10 in press

Concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin and resistin in goat colostrum and mature milk from seven breeds

The importance of passive or humoral immunity, through absorption of colostral antibodies or immunoglobulin is well recognised. White adipose tissue, considered a passive site of lipid storage, is reported to have a role in metabolic and  endocrine functions; secreting a range of hormones known as adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin and resistin. In addition, these major adipokines have been found in human milk and in some livestock species. There is a paucity of literature regarding hormones that may be associated with energy metabolism in goats, thus the objective of this study was to measure the concentration of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin and resistin in goat colostrum and mature milk from seven different breeds.breed effect was found for all hormones except milk ghrelin concentration.  Leptin concentration was greater in milk, and in colostrum, for the GU and PY, respectively, with no differences between colostrum and milk concentration for the other breeds.  Adiponectin concentration was greater in colostrum than in milk for all breeds except for the PY breed. Ghrelin concentrations were greater in colostrum than in milk for the PAL, TNF and VE breeds. Resistin
concentration was greater in milk than in colostrum for GU, PY and VE breeds.

 

BSAS 2018

Etude de la couleur de différents types des viandes bovines vendues en Espagne

Cette étude propose une classification objective de la couleur de la viande bovine vendue sous différentes dénominations en Espagne à partir de variables colorimétriques. Sur le marché espagnol, il existe huit dénominations de vente de la viande bovine. Le consommateur, au moment de l’achat, tient compte de la couleur et de l’apparence de la viande pour choisir ou non un produit. Or, les différences de couleur mesurées objectivement ne correspondent pas toujours à cette segmentation commerciale. Au total, 78 échantillons de différents types de viande bovine commercialisés en Espagne ont été regroupés en quatre classes de couleur : blanche, rose, rouge et très rouge, par des mesures colorimétriques objectives. A partir des valeurs moyennes des paramètres de couleur et de leur dispersion (écart type), un standard a été calculé pour chaque type commercial.

 

Viandes et produits carnés, marzo 2017