Publicaciones de la categoría: Publicaciones

Hamburguesas bajas en sal y grasa

 

Se estudió la aceptabilidad por parte de los consumidores de hamburguesas elaboradas con lafalda de vacas de desvieje en las que se había sustituido parcialmente elcontenido en sal o en grasa. Como sustitutos para la sal se utilizó una mezclade cloruro de potasio, ferrocianuro potásico y ferrocianuro de sodio. Comosustitutos para la grasa se utilizaron copos de avena o una mezcla de semillasde chía y lino. Se trabajó con 34 consumidores. No hubo diferencias entre ellote control y el resto de las formulaciones en las notas dadas por losconsumidores.  Ni el género ni la edad delos consumidores influyó sobre la apreciación sensorial. Sin embargo, seregistraron muchos comentarios relativos a fallos de textura. Por lo tanto, lasustitución de sal y/o grasa en la formulación de hamburguesas fabricadas conla falda de vacas de desvieje es una alternativa viable para lacomercialización de estas piezas de bajo valor comercial siempre y cuando se ajuste la textura de las mismas para asemejarla al lote control.

Cárnica 398,20-27. Hamburguesas bajas en sal y grasa (I)

Cárnica 399, 12-21. Hamburguesas bajas en sal y grasa (II)

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Solubilidad del colágeno y textura de la carne bovina cocinada al vacío: efecto del tiempo de maduración y de la temperatura de cocinado en dos razas de diferente aptitud productiva

La cocina al vacío se está utilizando de manera creciente en la restauración porque presenta varias ventajas sobre el cocinado tradicional, pero tanto la presión de vacío como la temperatura de cocinado condicionan la textura de la carne. Este trabajo estudia, en dos razas bovinas de aptitudes diferentes, los cambios que ocurren en la textura de la carne y la solubilidad del colágeno en función de la temperatura de cocinado y el tiempo de maduración. Se utilizaron 13 añojos de raza Pirenaica y 12 de raza Frisona. El músculo  longissimus lumborum et thoracis se fileteó siguiendo un diseño factorial con tres tiempos de maduración (7, 14, 21 días) y 4 temperaturas de cocinado para la textura (crudo, 55ºC, 65ºC y70ºC), o 3 temperaturas para el colágeno insoluble y las pérdidas por cocinado (55ºC, 65ºC y 70ºC). La maduración tuvo un menor efecto que la temperatura de cocinado sobre la textura de la carne. El porcentaje de pérdidas por cocinado aumentó con la temperatura. La solubilidad del colágeno se vio poco afectada por la temperatura en el rango 50-70ºC. En general, la dureza del músculo fue mayor en crudo que cocinada a 55ºC, y se fue incrementando con la temperatura. A la vista de los resultados, no recomendaríamos cocinar la carne por encima de 65ºC, ya que por encima de esta temperatura se ve comprometida la textura.

 

Eurocarne 265, 119-130

Viabilidad de la maduración en seco en diferentes tipos de carne de vacuno español

El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una primera aproximación a las características
de la carne de vacuno madurada en seco y comprobar si la carne de categorías
comerciales como la ternera o el añojo pueden conseguir unos parámetros de textura y calidad microbiológica similares a los de la carne de vaca madurada
en las mismas condiciones. La maduración en seco debe realizarse en condiciones muy controladas. Son cruciales los factores tiempo, temperatura, humedad relativa
y velocidad del aire dentro de la cámara frigorífica. Controlar la temperatura es muy importante para ralentizar y casi detener el proceso de putrefacción de la carne.

Realizamos un experimento en el que maduramos en seco chuleteros de diferentes categorías comerciales.
Estudiamos dos aspectos principales: la aptitud microbiológica de la pieza y su textura. Se estudió la microbiología de la carne porque la maduración seca es un proceso en el que la pieza está más expuesta al medio y además durante un largo periodo de tiempo, por lo que es fundamental comprobar que tras ese periodo, no excede los límites legales de carga microbiana. Por otro lado, se estudió la textura porque así se consigue obtener información objetiva de cómo ha madurado la carne y por tanto de cómo se ha visto afectada la terneza.

Eurocarne 260, 110-121

 

Colour variability of beef in young bulls from fifteen European breeds

The objective of this study was to determine the variation of the colour of longissimus thoracis muscle within and among fifteen European cattle breeds reared under comparable management conditions. A total of 436 unrelated purebred young bulls from fifteen European breeds (Aberdeen Angus, Highland,
Jersey, South Devon, Danish Red, Holstein, Simmental, Asturiana de las Monta~nas (also known as Casina), Asturiana de los Valles, Avileña-Negra Iberica, Pirenaica, Marchigiana, Piemontese, Charolais and Limousin) were reared in five experimental research centres in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain, Italy and France. The pH of M. longissimus thoracis was measured at 24 h and after 10 days of ageing and colour at 48 h and 10 days. Two generalised linear models, Pearson correlations and a hierarchical cluster analyses were carried out. Lean meat colour differed significantly between breeds, and these fifteen European breeds could be grouped according to four classes of commercial interest: ‘very bright and pale-red’, ‘bright and pale’, ‘red’ and ‘dark and dull red’. These groups were partially related to body size and carcass traits, fatness and muscle development and structure, and were controlled by differences in gene expression within each breed.

 

Int J. food Scie and Techn, en prensa

 

Effects of breed-production system on collagen, textural and sensory traits of 10 European beef cattle breeds

In the current study the collagen, texture and sensory characteristics of meat from 712 yearling males of 10 local Spanish and French beef breeds raised in their typical production systems were described. The breed-production system affected collagen and texture variables but affected sensory variables only slightly. There was a large amount of intra-breed-production system variation for all the  variables. French breeds had lower values for collagen solubility (approximately 12%) than Spanish breeds (approximately 40%). Stress (WB) varied from 36 N/cm2 in Casina to 44 N/cm2 in Salers, whereas compression stress at 80% ranged from 35N/cm2 in Asturiana de los Valles to 40 N/cm2 in Salers. Oven cooking resulted in higher cookinglosses (24%) than cooking on a grill (12%). Cooking losses increased as the grill temperatureincreased. Numerous significant correlations were found among variables. Carcass weight is associated with all the collagen and texture variables. Correlation coefficients among texture and collagen variables were statistically significant and these correlation coefficients were in general higher for solubility percentage than for total collagen content, highlighting the importance of the solubility of collagen rather than total collagen in determining meat textural properties.

 

JTS, en prensa

Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops fromsuckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer

BACKGROUND: The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of themeat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental colorwas measured. A machine learning algorithmwas used to relate them. The aim of this experimentwas to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam’smilk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.

RESULTS: Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the  appearance of meat.

CONCLUSION: Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be  computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.

J Science Food Agriculture 98(7) 2651-2657

Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit

The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences
regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called
“Gourmet”, “Disinterested”, “Conservative”, and “Basic”. The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

 

Foods, 7(5), 80

Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops fromsuckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer

The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of themeat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental colorwas measured. A machine learning algorithmwas used to relate them. The aim of this experimentwas to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam’smilk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.

RESULTS: Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the appearance of meat.

CONCLUSION: Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.

Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit

The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences
regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called
“Gourmet”, “Disinterested”, “Conservative”, and “Basic”. The Gourmet group has characteristics
that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is
unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb
and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

 

Foods, 7(5), 80

La maduración de la carne bovina ¿es necesaria?

Existen múltiples tipos de consumidores de carne. No tantos como personas, pero casi. Sin embargo, la gran mayoría de ellos coincide en que la terneza es una de las características sensoriales más valoradas en la carne.

 

Esta información ha sido publicada en la red RICA. Puede consultar la entrada completa aquí

Effect of the winter diet on meat quality traits of steers finished on mountain pasture with a barley supplement

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two winter diets (WD) (100 F, i.e. 100% forage, 8.3 kg DM of lucerne hay + 0.3 kg DM of straw; and 65F:35C, i.e. 65% forage:35% concentrate, 5.4 kg DM lucerne hay + 0.3 kg DM straw + 3.0 kg DM barley), offered during 118 days on meat quality traits of 20-month old steers finished on mountain pasture supplemented with 4.1 kg DM barley d–1. Longissimus thoracis intramuscular fat content and its fatty acid profile were determined (in vivo) after one month on pasture. The intramuscular fat content, fatty acid profile, texture (1, 8 and 15 days of ageing), colour (1, 2, and 8 days of oxygen exposure) and sensorial quality (8 and 15 days ageing) were evaluated post-mortem after 163 days on the finishing diet. Intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile were affected by the WD in vivo (p < 0.05) but not post-mortem. Meat pH was not affected by the WD but the texture was affected by the interaction between the WD and the ageing time (p < 0.001), maximum stress decreased more rapidly in the 100F diet in the first 8 days of ageing. Meat colour was only affected by the oxygen-exposure time (p < 0.001). Panel test variables were not affected by the WD, but ageing time affected beef flavour intensity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the winter diet affected intramuscular fat content after one month of grazing but had no major effects on post-mortem meat quality of pasture-finished steers.

 

SJAR 10, 1037-1047

SNP included in candidate genes involved in muscle, lipid and energy metabolism behave like neutral markers

Studies of population structure and diversity in cattle have provided insights into the origins of breeds, their history and evolution, and allow the identification of global livestock diversity hotspots, which is important for conservation of diversity. Genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, and the presence of hotspots of genetic diversity among 15 European bovine breeds from five countries were assessed using 435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified in candidate genes for muscle, lipid and energy metabolism, thus providing the opportunity to compare the breed relationships obtained using putatively functional markers with previous data using neutral loci. Individuals belonging to 11 breeds tended to be clearly assigned to a single cluster when the number of pre-defined populations reached a maximum in the likelihood of the data at K= 12, whereas Asturiana de los Valles, Danish Red,  Simmental, and Avileña-Negra Ibérica displayed a greater degree of admixture, which may be explained by their diverse ancestry. Although overall results were in agreement with those reported by studies based on neutral genetic variations, some additional breed relationship information emerged using markers in candidate functional loci, including the relationship between the Asturiana de los Valles and Piedmontese, and Danish Red and Charolais breeds. This study indicates that the analysed loci have not been main targets for selection or for adaptation processes, but also that SNP within candidate genes related with beef characteristics and performance may provide a slightly new perspective on past  breeding and may also help in the development of strategies for the rational conservation of livestock diversity.

 

Animal Production Science 55, 1164-1171

Carne de cerdo: vida útil, prevalencia de Salmonella y percepeción del consumidor

Los consumidores quieren productos seguros y de calidad. Para garantizas la seguridad alimentaria es necesario sontrolar las zoonosis, entre las que destaca la salmonelosis. Algunos extractos derivados de plantas (EDP) possen propiedades antimicrobianas. Además, estos EDP comabten la oxidación de los lípidos de la carne. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la influencia de la inclusión de EDP, tipo de envasado y tiempo de exposición al oxígeno sobre la calidad de la carne de cerdo.

 

Parte 1

Parte 2

Estudio del color de diferentes tipos de carne bovina en España

Sur le marché espagnol, il existe huit dénominations de vente de la viande bovine. Le consommateur, au moment de l’achat, tient compte de la couleur et de l’apparence de la viande pour choisir ou non un  produit. Or, les différences de couleur mesurées objectivement ne correspondent pas toujours à cette segmentation commerciale. Au total, 78 échantillons de différents types de viande bovine commercialisés en Espagne ont été regroupés en quatre classes de couleur : blanche, rose, rouge et très rouge, par des mesures colorimétriques objectives. A partir des valeurs moyennes des paramètres de couleur et de leur dispersion (écart type), un standard a été calculé pour chaque type commercial.

Cata comentada de carne de vacuno en FIGAN: resultados

El pasado 31 de marzo realizamos una cata comentada de carne de vacuno dentro del marco de FIGAN. Era una actividad del proyecto RTA INIA 2012-00046-C03.

Agradecemos a Feria de Zaragoza, Fribin, Citapa, TV Aragón y todos los asistentes la colaboración prestada.

Se pueden consultar los resultados aquí.

Valoración de puntos críticos de la cadena de producción de carne fresca de bovino

Dentro del proyecto titulado “Gestión de la calidad nínima garantizada y de la voda útil de distintas piezas de carne de vacuno y  su relación con marcadores moleculares” se llevó a cabo una encuesta  al sector productor, a investigadores expertos en el tema y a consumidores para conocer cuáles son, a su juicio, los puntos críticos de la cadena de producción de bovino que afectan a la calidad de la carne.

La encuesta utilizada puede consultarse aquí.

Los resultados obtenidos pueden consultarse aquí

La importancia real del proceso de maduración en las carnes

ripoll1Una de las características de la carne más valoradas por todos los tipos de consumidores es la terneza. Ciertas carnes, como la de ave, tienen una terneza adecuada para el consumo nada más ser sacrificado el animal. Sin embargo, otras necesitan de un cierto tiempo antes de ser consumidas, para que se dé el proceso de maduración, en el cual la carne se hace más tierna.

 

http://axoncomunicacion.net/news/new/IdNew/175/Option/3

Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds

2_1Current customers’ demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n -3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers’ acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

Molecular Biology Reports 41, 4721-4731

Phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and sensory parameters in European bovine breeds

2_1Background: Consuming moderate amounts of lean red meat as part of a balanced diet valuably  contributes to intakes of essential nutrients. In this study, we merged phenotypic and genotypic information to characterize the variation in lipid profile and sensory parameters and to represent the diversity among 15 cattle populations. Correlations between fat content, organoleptic characteristics and lipid profiles were also investigated.

Methods: A sample of 436 largely unrelated purebred bulls belonging to 15 breeds and reared under comparable management conditions was analyzed. Phenotypic data -including fatness score, fat percentage, individual fatty acids (FA) profiles and sensory panel tests- and genotypic information from 11 polymorphisms was used.

Results: The correlation coefficients between muscle total lipid measurements and absolute vs. relative amounts of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were in opposite directions. Increasing carcass fat leads to an increasing amount of FAs in triglycerides, but at the same time the relative amount of PUFAs is decreasing, which is in concordance with the negative correlation obtained here between the percentage of PUFA and fat measurements, as well as the weaker correlation between total phospholipids and total lipid muscle content compared with neutral lipids. Concerning organoleptic characteristics, a negative correlation between flavour scores and the percentage of total PUFA, particularly to n-6 fraction, was found. The correlation between juiciness and texture is higher than with flavour scores. The distribution of SNPs plotted by principal components analysis (PCA) mainly reflects their known trait associations, although influenced by their specific breed allele frequencies.

Conclusions: The results presented here help to understand the phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in FA composition and sensory parameters between breeds. The wide range of traits and breeds studied, along with the genotypic information on polymorphisms previously associated with different lipid traits, provide a broad characterization of beef meat, which allows giving a better response to the variety of consumers’ preferences. Also, the development and implementation of low-density SNP panels with predictive value for economically important traits, such as those summarized here, may be used to improve production efficiency and meat quality in the beef industry.

Journal of animal Science and biotechnology, 5,20

Association of bovine meat quality traits with genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAUnderstanding which are the genetic variants underlying the nutritional and sensory properties of beef, enables improvement in meat quality. The aim of this study is to identify new molecular markers for meat quality through an association study using candidate genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks given their master role in coordinating metabolic adaptation in fat tissue, muscle and liver. Amongst the novel associations found in this study, selection of the positivemarker variants of genes such as BCL3, LPL, PPARG, SCAP, andSCD will improvemeat organoleptic characteristics and health by balancing the n−6 ton−3 fatty acid ratio inmeat. Also previous results on GDF8 and DGAT1 were validated, and the novel ATF4, HNF4A and PPARGC1A associations, although slightly under the significance threshold, are consistent with their physiological roles. These data contribute insights into the complex gene-networks underlying economically important traits.

Meat Science 94, 328-335

Notas de valoración visual para la carne de cabrito

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAEl 17 de marzo realizamos una prueba de apreciación visual de carne de cabrito. La prueba se llevó a cabo en las instalaciones del CITA simulando una situación de compra en supermercado. Les pedimos a los consumidores que evaluasen la carne por su aspecto y que expresasen su intención de compra. En las condiciones del experimento puede concluirse que:

  • La nota de apreciación visual depende del sistema de lactancia y el tiempo de exposición pero no del sexo o edad de los consumidores.
  • La carne de lactancia artificial obtuvo notas más altas que la de lactancia natural y se mantiene mejor a lo largo del tiempo de exposición.

Puedes consultar los detalles aquí

Muchas gracias a todos por vuestra colaboración

Embutidos más saludables: extractos derivados de plantas en el pienso de los cerdos y reducción de sal en el chorizo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALos consumidores  buscan alimentos saludables, seguros y de buena calidad y ello  está produciendo una profunda transformación en el sector de la producción animal. Para asegurar alimentos sanos, el ganado debe estar en buenas condiciones sanitarias, lo cual obliga al control de las zoonosis más importantes, entre las que se encuentra la salmonelosis.). Se ha demostrado que los extractos de algunas plantas (EDP) tienen propiedades antimicrobianas y actúan sobre la infección por Samonella en condiciones de granja. El empleo de productos naturales permite disminuir el uso de antibióticos y otros productos farmacológicos, reducir residuos y promover una producción más sostenible.

En productos cárnicos, como el chorizo, la calidad sensorial depende  también de los aditivos empleados, incluyendo el pimentón y la sal. Sin embargo, la ingesta excesiva de sodio es perjudicial para la salud humana y en consecuencia, las autoridades sanitarias de la UE han propuesto un plan para reducir la ingesta de sal en un 16% a lo largo de 4 años (Comisión Europea, 2008). Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista de la industria, la reducción de sal podría ser un problema importante ya que puede provocar tanto una disminución en los parámetros de calidad (vida útil, textura, sabor, aceptación de los consumidores) como problemas tecnológicos.

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar si la adición de extractos derivados de plantas (EDP) a la dieta de los cerdos y la formulación del chorizo fabricado con esa carne puede influir en la calidad de los chorizos.

 

Puede consultar la publicación Eurocarne 248, 58-63

Meat physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics from three North African lamb breeds, as influenced by concentrate or pasture finishing diets

índiceThis study investigated the meat quality of lambs from three North African breeds (Barbarine, BB; Queue Fine de l’Ouest, QFO; and Noire de Thibar, NT) reared on concentrate (S) or on pasture (P). A total of 18 P and 18 S lambs (20 kg initial body weight) were used, with 6 P and 6 S lambs for each breed. After 67 days, all lambs were slaughtered at 26 kg final body weight and meat quality was studied. The pH of S lambs 1 h post-mortem was lower than that of P lambs (p = 0.001). Water cooking loss, colour and sensory quality were not affected by both factors. The pasture and the concentrate meats had the same proportions of lipids and proteins; however QFO and BB breeds had more intramuscular fat than NT breed. The saturated fatty acid proportion was higher for S than P groups (50.63 vs. 44.48%, respectively) and for QFO compared to other breeds. C18:1 was higher for S groups, while C18:2, C18:3 and CLA were higher for P groups. The S group had higher lipid oxidation, while the QFO breed had the highest TBARS. P lambs may have healthier meat than S lambs and the NT breed had the leanest meat with higher concentration of desirable FAs.

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 48 ,102–110

Clasificación objetiva del color de la carne de las denominaciones de venta de vacuno

costilla terneraSegún el Real Decreto 75/2009, existen en la actualidad ocho denominaciones de venta para la carne de vacuno comercializada en España, en función de la edad y el sexo del animal. En el momento de la compra, el consumidor valora sobre todo el color de la carne y su apariencia de frescura, que evalúa en función de la humedad superficial y la cantidad de grasa. El color de las carnes puede clasificarse subjetivamente comparándolas con cartas de color pero también puede medirse de forma objetiva y reproducible con colorímetros y espectrofotómetros.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue clasificar de forma objetiva el color de las diferentes denominaciones de venta de carne de vacuno comercializadas en España.

En este estudio se ha planteado que todas ellas se pueden agrupar de forma coherente en cuatro grupos de color, desde blanca a muy roja, y se ha establecido un patrón de clasificación para las carnes comerciales.

Puede consultar el documento completo Eurocarne 244, 131-142

Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality

frisonesInstrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed +CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458 ± 16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss ( P⩽ 0.001) and intramuscular fat ( P⩽ 0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses ( P⩽ 0.01) and shear force ( P⩽ 0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour ( P⩽ 0.05), but increased beef ( P⩽ 0.01) and liver ( P⩽ 0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid ( P⩽ 0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.

Puede consultar el documento completo aquí: Animal, 10, 709-717