Publicaciones de la categoría: Revistas científicas

Effects of breed-production system on collagen, textural, and sensory traits of 10 European beef cattle breeds

In the current study the collagen, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat from 712 yearling males of 10 local Spanish and French beef breeds raised in their typical production systems were described. The breed-production system affected collagen and texture variables but affected sensory variables only slightly. There was a large amount of intra breed-production system variation for all the variables. French breeds had lower values for collagen solubility (~12%) than Spanish breeds (~40%). Stress (WB) varied from 36 N/cm2 in Casina to 44 N/cm2 in Salers, whereas compression stress at 80% ranged from 35 N/cm2 in Asturiana de los Valles to 40 N/cm2 in Salers. Oven cooking resulted in higher cooking losses (24%) than cooking on a grill (12%). Cooking losses increased as the grill temperature increased. Numerous significant correlations were found among variables. Carcass weight is associated with all the collagen and texture variables. Correlation coefficients among texture and collagen variables were statistically significant and these correlation coefficients were in general higher for solubility percentage
than for total collagen content, highlighting the importance of the solubility of collagen rather
than total collagen in determining meat textural properties.

 

J. Sensory Studies, 49, 528-535

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The effect of carcass weight on fatness and muscle and fat colour of male Ojinegra de Teruel light lambs

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increases in lamb carcass weight in 1-kg steps from 8 to 11 kg on carcass fatness, muscle colour, subcutaneous and renal fat colour, tissue composition of the thoracic limb, and intramuscular fatty acid composition. Sixty-two carcasses from Ojinegra de Teruel male lambs fed concentrates ad libitum and barley straw were used. Both carcass scores and renal fat weight increased with carcass weight
(P = 0.0001), but the percentage increase in renal fat weight was twice that of fat scores. Renal fat was prone to store carotenoids earlier than caudal fat, resulting in increased chroma. With increasing carcass weight, muscle colour became less light (decreased L* (P = 0.0001) and an increased in chroma scores (P = 0.001). Increments of 1 kg of carcass weight led to noticeable changes in the M. rectus abdominis colour, except at the increment from 10 kg to 11 kg. Slaughtering lambs at light weights was found to be advisable because renal fat is not a valuable part of the carcass. The lean percentage of the thoracic limb did not increase with carcass weight, as the increased muscle : bone ratio (P = 0.0001) was offset by an increased fat percentage (especially the intermuscular fat %). Changes with increasing carcass weight in the proportions of the main fatty acids in intramuscular fat were small. Moreover, intramuscular fat did not change in quantity or quality. However, when selling carcasses at heavier weights is preferred, achieving carcasses of 11 kg rather than 10 kg was found
to be advisable because the deposition of fat in both was similar. Breeds that deposit fat earlier than the breed used in this study should be fed low-energy diets to improve carcass quality. This feeding strategy could also be considered if fat deposition differs between sexes.

 

Animal Production Science 59, 1168-1175

The Effect of Consumer Involvement in Light Lamb Meat on Behavior, Sensory Perception, and Health-Related Concerns

Involvement can explain behavioral consequences, such as consumer decision-making and consumption. The first aim of this study is to identify the profiles of consumers based on their involvement in light lamb meat. The second aim is to study the influence of involvement on consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, preferences, quality cues, and sensory perception regarding light lamb meat. Two consumer profiles are identified. The first cluster includes consumers who enjoyed eating light lamb meat, were conscious of their self-image, and perceived the consequences of poor choices; these consumers also perceived the probability of making an incorrect choice as high. The second cluster includes consumers who truly loved eating lamb meat, were also conscious of their self-image, and perceived the consequences of poor choices; however, these consumers were confident in not making incorrect choices. Although both involvement-based profiles showed high involvement in light lamb meat, it can be concluded that the second cluster had a higher involvement. In general, the involvement-based profiles did not influence health-related attitudes, preferences, or sensory perceptions of light lamb meat, while beliefs, behavior and quality cues were influenced by involvement.

 

Nutrients

Effect of the rearing system on the color of four muscles of suckling kids

Most suckling kids are raised on farms for cheese production, and many goat farmers rear kids with milk replacers. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of milk replacers on the color of four muscles. A total of 246 suckling kids of eight breeds were slaughtered to achieve carcasses of 5 kg. The color of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and longissimus thoracis muscles was measured with a spectrophotometer, and CIELab  coordinates were registered. In addition, the pH of longissimus thoracis was measured. The effect of the rearing system (RS) on the color of the studied muscles is strongly modulated by breed. In general terms, there are two groups of kids according to the color of meat. The first group has great lightness and hue angle including Malagueña, Palmera, and Tinerfeña fed natural and artificial milk. The second group with great redness includes Retinta, Payoya, and Verata fed natural and artificial milk together with Florida fed natural milk and Cabra del Guadarrama fed milk replacers. Hence, farms should consider selecting a breed and RS together. Most of the kid meat with high pH comes from kids raised on milk replacers. Because artificial RSs use very early weaning, which might induce a high pH and dark meat, two artificial
rearing strategies can be proposed. The first strategy is to choose less sensitive breeds that produce meat with a normal pH. The second strategy is to restrict suckling of natural milk but minimize separation from the mother.

 

Food Science & Nutrition, 00, 1-10 in press

Etude de la couleur de différents types des viandes bovines vendues en Espagne

Cette étude propose une classification objective de la couleur de la viande bovine vendue sous différentes dénominations en Espagne à partir de variables colorimétriques. Sur le marché espagnol, il existe huit dénominations de vente de la viande bovine. Le consommateur, au moment de l’achat, tient compte de la couleur et de l’apparence de la viande pour choisir ou non un produit. Or, les différences de couleur mesurées objectivement ne correspondent pas toujours à cette segmentation commerciale. Au total, 78 échantillons de différents types de viande bovine commercialisés en Espagne ont été regroupés en quatre classes de couleur : blanche, rose, rouge et très rouge, par des mesures colorimétriques objectives. A partir des valeurs moyennes des paramètres de couleur et de leur dispersion (écart type), un standard a été calculé pour chaque type commercial.

 

Viandes et produits carnés, marzo 2017

The effect of carcass weight on fatness and muscle and fat color of male Ojinegra de Teruel light lambs

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increases in lamb carcass weight in 1 kg steps from 8 to 11 kg on carcass fatness, muscle color, subcutaneous and renal fat color, tissue composition of the thoracic limb, and intramuscular fatty-acid composition. Sixty-two carcasses from Ojinegra de Teruel male lambs fed concentrates ad libitum and barley straw were used. Both carcass scores and renal fat weight increased with carcass weight (P = 0.0001), but the percentage increase in renal fat weight was twice that of fat scores. Renal fat was prone to store carotenoids earlier than caudal fat, resulting in increased chroma. With increasing carcass weight, muscle color became less light (decreased L* (P = 0.0001) and an increased in chroma scores (P = 0.001). Increments of 1 kg of carcass weight led to noticeable changes in the rectus abdominis color, except at the increment from 10 kg to 11 kg. Slaughtering lambs at light weights was found to be advisable because renal fat is not a valuable part of the carcass. The lean percentage of the thoracic limb did not increase with carcass weight, as the increased muscle:bone ratio (P = 0.0001) was offset by an increased fat percentage (especially the intermuscular fat %). Changes with increasing carcass weight in the proportions of the main fatty acids in intramuscular fat were small. Moreover, intramuscular fat did not change in quantity or quality. However, when selling carcasses at heavier weights is preferred, achieving carcasses of 11 kg rather than 10 kg was found to be advisable because the deposition of fat in both was similar. Breeds that deposit fat earlier than the breed used in this study should be fed low-energy diets to improve carcass quality. This feeding strategy could also be considered if fat deposition differs between sexes.

 

Animal Prod Sci, in press.

 

 

Solubilidad del colágeno y textura de la carne bovina cocinada al vacío: efecto del tiempo de maduración y de la temperatura de cocinado

La cocina al vacío se está utilizando de manera creciente en la restauración porque presenta varias ventajas sobre el cocinado tradicional pero tanto la presión de  vacío como la temperatura de cocinado condicionan la textura de la carne. Este trabajo estudia, en dos razas bovinas de aptitudes diferentes, los cambios que ocurren en la textura de la carne y la solubilidad del colágeno en función de la temperatura de cocinado y el tiempo de maduración. Se utilizaron 13 animales de raza Pirenaica y 12 de raza Frisona. El músculo Longissimus lumborum et thoracis se fileteó siguiendo un diseño factorial con tres tiempos de maduración (7, 14 y 21 días) y 4 temperaturas de cocinado para la textura (crudo, 55°C, 65°C y 70°C), o 3 temperaturas para el colágeno insoluble y las pérdidas por cocinado (55°C, 65°C y 70°C). La maduración tuvo un menor efecto que la temperatura de cocinado sobre la textura de la carne. El porcentaje de pérdidas por cocinado aumentó con la temperatura. La solubilidad del colágeno se vio poco afectada por la temperatura en el rango 50°C-70°C. En general, la dureza del músculo fue mayor en crudo que cocinada a 55°C, y se fue incrementando con la temperatura. A la vista de los resultados, no recomendaríamos cocinar la carne por encima de 65°C, ya que por encima de esta temperatura se ve comprometida la textura.

 

ITEA en prensa

Influencia de la maduración y el tipo de cocinado en la valoración sensorial y el perfil de compuestos aromáticos del cruce industrial de raza Retinta

Se estudió el efecto del tiempo de maduración y tipo de cocinado sobre la valoración sensorial y el perfil de los compuestos aromáticos de la carne de animales de los cruces de toros de las razas Retinta, Limousine, Pirenaica y Asturiana de los Valles con vacas Retintas. Se utilizaron dos paneles, uno para el
efecto de la maduración y otro para el tipo de cocinado. El entrenamiento de los catadores y la temperatura de cocinado fueron idénticos en ambos casos, aunque los perfiles difieren entre sí. En la valoración sensorial no se encontraron  interacciones entre efectos. El cruce sólo afectó a la terneza, siendo la carne de Pirenaica x Retinta y Retinta x Retinta algo más dura. La terneza, el flavor a hígado y el flavor ácido aumentaron con la maduración, al contrario que la jugosidad. El tipo de cocinado afectó a la terneza y a la facilidad al tragar, estando ambas variables inversamente correlacionadas. Se identificaron 50 compuestos aromáticos. El cruce tuvo menos influencia que el tipo de cocinado y se encontró una interacción significativa entre efectos para para 15 de los compuestos, especialmente hidrocarburos. El cruce afectó al porcentaje de alcoholes, compuestos azufrados y cetonas pero no al resto y el tipo de cocinado, a todos los compuestos. Los hidrocarburos y las cetonas presentaron mayores concentraciones que el resto. Para todos los grupos de compuestos excepto para los azufrados, las cantidades detectadas fueron mayores en cuando el método de cocinado fue la cocción.

 

ITEA en prensa

Calidad instrumental de la carne de terneros procedentes del cruce industrial de la raza Retinta

El cruzamiento industrial tiene una gran repercusión en el mercado, ya que la raza es uno de los factores que más afecta a la composición de la canal y de la carne. En el mercado español existen  mayoritariamente terneros cruzados procedentes de razas rústicas y de razas de aptitud cárnica con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de la canal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la carne de
terneros procedentes de cruces de Retinta con machos de razas Asturiana de los Valles, Limusín, Retinta y Pirenaica. Para ello, se cebaron con pienso 28 terneros, distribuidos en cuatro lotes según la raza del macho, que fueron sacrificados a los doce meses de edad con un peso medio de 480,0 ± 15,5 kg. En general, la carne de los animales de raza pura tendió a presentar valores más bajos para las pérdidas por presión y el porcentaje de humedad y valores más altos para las pérdidas por goteo que la carne de los cruces. El cruce con Limusín produjo carnes con mayor claridad a cualquier tiempo de exposición y tendió a presentar menor carga WB y menor esfuerzo al 20% que el resto de los cruces, en especial a tiempos cortos de maduración. El cruce con Pirenaica dio lugar a carnes con mayor saturación, mayor concentración de pigmentos hemínicos y mayor carga WB. El cruce con Asturiano de los Valles originó carnes con menor claridad y menores pérdidas por cocinado a tiempos largos, tendiendo a presentar los valores más bajos para saturación y menores pérdidas por goteo a tiempos cortos. El interés del cruce con toros cárnicos es evidente por la mejora en el rendimiento carnicero.

 

ITEA 112, 286-300

Colour variability of beef in young bulls from fifteen European breeds

The objective of this study was to determine the variation of the colour of longissimus thoracis muscle within and among fifteen European cattle breeds reared under comparable management conditions. A total of 436 unrelated purebred young bulls from fifteen European breeds (Aberdeen Angus, Highland,
Jersey, South Devon, Danish Red, Holstein, Simmental, Asturiana de las Monta~nas (also known as Casina), Asturiana de los Valles, Avileña-Negra Iberica, Pirenaica, Marchigiana, Piemontese, Charolais and Limousin) were reared in five experimental research centres in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain, Italy and France. The pH of M. longissimus thoracis was measured at 24 h and after 10 days of ageing and colour at 48 h and 10 days. Two generalised linear models, Pearson correlations and a hierarchical cluster analyses were carried out. Lean meat colour differed significantly between breeds, and these fifteen European breeds could be grouped according to four classes of commercial interest: ‘very bright and pale-red’, ‘bright and pale’, ‘red’ and ‘dark and dull red’. These groups were partially related to body size and carcass traits, fatness and muscle development and structure, and were controlled by differences in gene expression within each breed.

 

Int J. food Scie and Techn, en prensa

 

Effects of breed-production system on collagen, textural and sensory traits of 10 European beef cattle breeds

In the current study the collagen, texture and sensory characteristics of meat from 712 yearling males of 10 local Spanish and French beef breeds raised in their typical production systems were described. The breed-production system affected collagen and texture variables but affected sensory variables only slightly. There was a large amount of intra-breed-production system variation for all the  variables. French breeds had lower values for collagen solubility (approximately 12%) than Spanish breeds (approximately 40%). Stress (WB) varied from 36 N/cm2 in Casina to 44 N/cm2 in Salers, whereas compression stress at 80% ranged from 35N/cm2 in Asturiana de los Valles to 40 N/cm2 in Salers. Oven cooking resulted in higher cooking losses (24%) than cooking on a grill (12%). Cooking losses increased as the grill temperatureincreased. Numerous significant correlations were found among variables. Carcass weight is associated with all the collagen and texture variables. Correlation coefficients among texture and collagen variables were statistically significant and these correlation coefficients were in general higher for solubility percentage than for total collagen content, highlighting the importance of the solubility of collagen rather than total collagen in determining meat textural properties.

 

j. sensory studies, 49, 528-535

Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops fromsuckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer

BACKGROUND: The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of themeat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental colorwas measured. A machine learning algorithmwas used to relate them. The aim of this experimentwas to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam’smilk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.

RESULTS: Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the  appearance of meat.

CONCLUSION: Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be  computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.

J Science Food Agriculture 98(7) 2651-2657

Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit

The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences
regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called
“Gourmet”, “Disinterested”, “Conservative”, and “Basic”. The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

 

Foods, 7(5), 80

Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops fromsuckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer

The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of themeat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental colorwas measured. A machine learning algorithmwas used to relate them. The aim of this experimentwas to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam’smilk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.

RESULTS: Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the appearance of meat.

CONCLUSION: Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.

Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit

The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences
regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called
“Gourmet”, “Disinterested”, “Conservative”, and “Basic”. The Gourmet group has characteristics
that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is
unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb
and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

 

Foods, 7(5), 80

Effect of the winter diet on meat quality traits of steers finished on mountain pasture with a barley supplement

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two winter diets (WD) (100 F, i.e. 100% forage, 8.3 kg DM of lucerne hay + 0.3 kg DM of straw; and 65F:35C, i.e. 65% forage:35% concentrate, 5.4 kg DM lucerne hay + 0.3 kg DM straw + 3.0 kg DM barley), offered during 118 days on meat quality traits of 20-month old steers finished on mountain pasture supplemented with 4.1 kg DM barley d–1. Longissimus thoracis intramuscular fat content and its fatty acid profile were determined (in vivo) after one month on pasture. The intramuscular fat content, fatty acid profile, texture (1, 8 and 15 days of ageing), colour (1, 2, and 8 days of oxygen exposure) and sensorial quality (8 and 15 days ageing) were evaluated post-mortem after 163 days on the finishing diet. Intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile were affected by the WD in vivo (p < 0.05) but not post-mortem. Meat pH was not affected by the WD but the texture was affected by the interaction between the WD and the ageing time (p < 0.001), maximum stress decreased more rapidly in the 100F diet in the first 8 days of ageing. Meat colour was only affected by the oxygen-exposure time (p < 0.001). Panel test variables were not affected by the WD, but ageing time affected beef flavour intensity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the winter diet affected intramuscular fat content after one month of grazing but had no major effects on post-mortem meat quality of pasture-finished steers.

 

SJAR 10, 1037-1047

SNP included in candidate genes involved in muscle, lipid and energy metabolism behave like neutral markers

Studies of population structure and diversity in cattle have provided insights into the origins of breeds, their history and evolution, and allow the identification of global livestock diversity hotspots, which is important for conservation of diversity. Genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, and the presence of hotspots of genetic diversity among 15 European bovine breeds from five countries were assessed using 435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified in candidate genes for muscle, lipid and energy metabolism, thus providing the opportunity to compare the breed relationships obtained using putatively functional markers with previous data using neutral loci. Individuals belonging to 11 breeds tended to be clearly assigned to a single cluster when the number of pre-defined populations reached a maximum in the likelihood of the data at K= 12, whereas Asturiana de los Valles, Danish Red,  Simmental, and Avileña-Negra Ibérica displayed a greater degree of admixture, which may be explained by their diverse ancestry. Although overall results were in agreement with those reported by studies based on neutral genetic variations, some additional breed relationship information emerged using markers in candidate functional loci, including the relationship between the Asturiana de los Valles and Piedmontese, and Danish Red and Charolais breeds. This study indicates that the analysed loci have not been main targets for selection or for adaptation processes, but also that SNP within candidate genes related with beef characteristics and performance may provide a slightly new perspective on past  breeding and may also help in the development of strategies for the rational conservation of livestock diversity.

 

Animal Production Science 55, 1164-1171

Estudio del color de diferentes tipos de carne bovina en España

Sur le marché espagnol, il existe huit dénominations de vente de la viande bovine. Le consommateur, au moment de l’achat, tient compte de la couleur et de l’apparence de la viande pour choisir ou non un  produit. Or, les différences de couleur mesurées objectivement ne correspondent pas toujours à cette segmentation commerciale. Au total, 78 échantillons de différents types de viande bovine commercialisés en Espagne ont été regroupés en quatre classes de couleur : blanche, rose, rouge et très rouge, par des mesures colorimétriques objectives. A partir des valeurs moyennes des paramètres de couleur et de leur dispersion (écart type), un standard a été calculé pour chaque type commercial.

Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds

2_1Current customers’ demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n -3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers’ acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

Molecular Biology Reports 41, 4721-4731

Phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and sensory parameters in European bovine breeds

2_1Background: Consuming moderate amounts of lean red meat as part of a balanced diet valuably  contributes to intakes of essential nutrients. In this study, we merged phenotypic and genotypic information to characterize the variation in lipid profile and sensory parameters and to represent the diversity among 15 cattle populations. Correlations between fat content, organoleptic characteristics and lipid profiles were also investigated.

Methods: A sample of 436 largely unrelated purebred bulls belonging to 15 breeds and reared under comparable management conditions was analyzed. Phenotypic data -including fatness score, fat percentage, individual fatty acids (FA) profiles and sensory panel tests- and genotypic information from 11 polymorphisms was used.

Results: The correlation coefficients between muscle total lipid measurements and absolute vs. relative amounts of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were in opposite directions. Increasing carcass fat leads to an increasing amount of FAs in triglycerides, but at the same time the relative amount of PUFAs is decreasing, which is in concordance with the negative correlation obtained here between the percentage of PUFA and fat measurements, as well as the weaker correlation between total phospholipids and total lipid muscle content compared with neutral lipids. Concerning organoleptic characteristics, a negative correlation between flavour scores and the percentage of total PUFA, particularly to n-6 fraction, was found. The correlation between juiciness and texture is higher than with flavour scores. The distribution of SNPs plotted by principal components analysis (PCA) mainly reflects their known trait associations, although influenced by their specific breed allele frequencies.

Conclusions: The results presented here help to understand the phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in FA composition and sensory parameters between breeds. The wide range of traits and breeds studied, along with the genotypic information on polymorphisms previously associated with different lipid traits, provide a broad characterization of beef meat, which allows giving a better response to the variety of consumers’ preferences. Also, the development and implementation of low-density SNP panels with predictive value for economically important traits, such as those summarized here, may be used to improve production efficiency and meat quality in the beef industry.

Journal of animal Science and biotechnology, 5,20

Association of bovine meat quality traits with genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAUnderstanding which are the genetic variants underlying the nutritional and sensory properties of beef, enables improvement in meat quality. The aim of this study is to identify new molecular markers for meat quality through an association study using candidate genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks given their master role in coordinating metabolic adaptation in fat tissue, muscle and liver. Amongst the novel associations found in this study, selection of the positivemarker variants of genes such as BCL3, LPL, PPARG, SCAP, andSCD will improvemeat organoleptic characteristics and health by balancing the n−6 ton−3 fatty acid ratio inmeat. Also previous results on GDF8 and DGAT1 were validated, and the novel ATF4, HNF4A and PPARGC1A associations, although slightly under the significance threshold, are consistent with their physiological roles. These data contribute insights into the complex gene-networks underlying economically important traits.

Meat Science 94, 328-335

Meat physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics from three North African lamb breeds, as influenced by concentrate or pasture finishing diets

índiceThis study investigated the meat quality of lambs from three North African breeds (Barbarine, BB; Queue Fine de l’Ouest, QFO; and Noire de Thibar, NT) reared on concentrate (S) or on pasture (P). A total of 18 P and 18 S lambs (20 kg initial body weight) were used, with 6 P and 6 S lambs for each breed. After 67 days, all lambs were slaughtered at 26 kg final body weight and meat quality was studied. The pH of S lambs 1 h post-mortem was lower than that of P lambs (p = 0.001). Water cooking loss, colour and sensory quality were not affected by both factors. The pasture and the concentrate meats had the same proportions of lipids and proteins; however QFO and BB breeds had more intramuscular fat than NT breed. The saturated fatty acid proportion was higher for S than P groups (50.63 vs. 44.48%, respectively) and for QFO compared to other breeds. C18:1 was higher for S groups, while C18:2, C18:3 and CLA were higher for P groups. The S group had higher lipid oxidation, while the QFO breed had the highest TBARS. P lambs may have healthier meat than S lambs and the NT breed had the leanest meat with higher concentration of desirable FAs.

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 48 ,102–110

Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality

frisonesInstrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed +CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458 ± 16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss ( P⩽ 0.001) and intramuscular fat ( P⩽ 0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses ( P⩽ 0.01) and shear force ( P⩽ 0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour ( P⩽ 0.05), but increased beef ( P⩽ 0.01) and liver ( P⩽ 0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid ( P⩽ 0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.

Puede consultar el documento completo aquí: Animal, 10, 709-717

A European vision for the Small Ruminant sector. Promotion of meat consumption campaigns.

FOTO CABRA DEL GUADARRAMASheep and goat production should adapt to current market demands if its future want to be secure. It is essential that are found ways to improve the competitiveness of the sector in all areas of the supply chain. Society’s point of view of the conditions surrounding livestock production is changing, and as a consequence, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been modified to include new environmentally-orientated requirements of farmers seeking subsidies. Sheep and goat production has the advantage over other types of livestock production in that it predominantly involves extensive production systems, but work is still needed to improve animal health and welfare, and food safety. People’s lifestyles are also changing, and the small ruminant sector should work to offer consumers new products presented in new ways, striking a balance between traditional forms of consumption (for example linked to festivities) and modern habits (including the purchasing of convenience products).

 

Puedes consultar el documento completo aquí

Calidad de la carne de 7 razas españolas vinculadas a sus sistema de producción

2cabeza asturianoEn España, de modo general, el consumidor de carne de vacuno le da poca importancia a la raza en comparación con otros países Europeos, a pesar de que la misma influye en otras características que sí considera relevantes como el aspecto (color, grasa intramuscular) o la terneza. Las razas bovinas rústicas y locales españolas están ligadas a una región geográfica particular y a un sistema de erra tradicional, donde varios factores como la edad y peso al sacrificio, el sexo, el grado de engrasamiento, el manejo, la alimentación y el tratamiento post-sacrificio intervienen conjuntamente en la definición de cada producto. Estos productos suelen promocionarse a través de denominaciones de origen o marcas de calidad que, por otro lado, permiten al consumidor reducir la incertidumbre cuando compran alimentos, ya que están asociadas a ciertas características sensoriales y/o procesos productivos distintivos.

Algunos autores han descrito la calidad de canal (Piedraflta et al., 2003) y las características bioquímicas (Gil et al., 2001) y sensoriales (Serra et al., 2008) de varias razas españolas vinculadas al sistema de producción, de modo que este trabajo se centra en la textura de la carne evaluada instrumentalmente y en algunas de sus características químicas.

Puede consultar el trabajo completo  aquí