Consumer visual appraisal and shelf life of leg chops fromsuckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacer
The use of milk replacers to feed suckling kids could affect the shelf life and appearance of themeat. Leg chops were evaluated by consumers and the instrumental colorwas measured. A machine learning algorithmwas used to relate them. The aim of this experimentwas to study the shelf life of the meat of kids reared with dam’smilk or milk replacers and to ascertain which illuminant and instrumental color variables are used by consumers as criteria to evaluate that visual appraisal.
RESULTS: Meat from kids reared with milk replacers was more valuable and had a longer shelf life than meat from kids reared with natural milk. Consumers used the color of the whole surface of the leg chop to assess the appearance of meat. Lightness and hue angle were the prime cues used to evaluate the appearance of meat.
CONCLUSION: Illuminant D65 was more useful for relating the visual appraisal with the instrumental color using a machine learning algorithm. The machine learning algorithms showed that the underlying rules used by consumers to evaluate the appearance of suckling kid meat are not at all linear and can be computationally schematized into a simple algorithm.
Sheep and goat production should adapt to current market demands if its future want to be secure. It is essential that are found ways to improve the competitiveness of the sector in all areas of the supply chain. Society’s point of view of the conditions surrounding livestock production is changing, and as a consequence, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been modified to include new environmentally-orientated requirements of farmers seeking subsidies. Sheep and goat production has the advantage over other types of livestock production in that it predominantly involves extensive production systems, but work is still needed to improve animal health and welfare, and food safety. People’s lifestyles are also changing, and the small ruminant sector should work to offer consumers new products presented in new ways, striking a balance between traditional forms of consumption (for example linked to festivities) and modern habits (including the purchasing of convenience products).
Puedes consultar el documento completo aquí
Association study between variability in the SCD gene and the fatty acid profile in perirenal and intramuscular fat deposits from Spanish goat populations
Despite the fact that goat meat is an important nutritive source throughout the world, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. Our objective was to assess the variability of the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in a sample of Spanish goat populations bred for both meat and dairy purposes and to look for possible associations between this genetic variability and the fatty acid composition in two fat deposits of industrial interest (perirenal and intramuscular). To do this, a goat population of 140 male suckling kids belonging to meat and dairy breeds was selected from farms in southern Spain. Four markers were detected in the SCD gene (SCD2, SCD3 172, SCD3 181, and SCD3 231) in the population, and significant associations were found between these markers and five individual fatty acids: C8:0, C11:0, C15:1, C16:1cis-9 and CLA 10 trans-12cis and two groups of fatty acids: SFA and MUFA. While significant associations in early (perirenal) fat depots for both dairy and meat purposes were observed, the only significant association in late (intramuscular) depots was found in goat kids bred for meat purposes. The SCD has been shown to be a useful gene to estimate the potential to show the different amounts of fatty acids in the fat of goat kids and use it in improvement programs which might provide an added value to goat meat and might help to produce a more competitive final product.
Puede consultar el documento completo aquí: Small Ruminant Research 136, 127-131
Para realizar la cata, le dimos a 71 consumidores una bolsa con dos muestras de carne: una de un animal criado con leche natural y otra de un animal, de la misma raza, criado con leche artificial.
Les pedimos que la hiciesen a la plancha y que valorasen, en una escala de 1 (malo) a 10 (muy bueno) el sabor, la jugosidad y la impresión general.
En este documento puede ver los resultados de la prueba: cata de carne de cabrito
Influence of breed, milk diet and slaughter weight on carcass traits of suckling from seven Spanish breeds
El experimento describe la influencia del sistema de producción sobre las siguientes características de la canal de
cabritos de siete razas españolas: peso de canal, de la cabeza, de las vísceras y de la grasa renal, rendimiento a la canal,
engrasamiento, longitud de la canal y de la pierna, perímetro y anchura de la pierna, color de la grasa renal y composición tisular de la espalda. Se utilizaron 201 cabritos machos, de parto simple, de cinco razas cárnicas y dos lecheras. Los animales de las razas cárnicas se sacrificaron a dos pesos de canal objetivo (ligeros, 4 kg; pesados, 7 kg). En las razas lecheras, la mitad de los cabritos se alimentaron con leche materna y la otra mitad, con un lacto-reemplazante y todos los animales fueron sacrificados al peso ligero (4 kg). En las razas lecheras, la raza fue más importante que el
tipo de lactancia, especialmente en los cabritos alimentados con leche natural. En las razas cárnicas, el peso tuvo mayor
influencia que la raza, aunque se observaron numerosas interacciones entre ambos efectos. Todas las variables estuvieron estrechamente relacionadas entre sí y con el peso al sacrificio y éste ultimo estuvo además positivamentecorrelacionado con el rendimiento a la canal y el grado de engrasamiento. El análisis discriminante explicó un 76,1% de la variabilidad encontrada y separó las razas lecheras, bien engrasadas y con canales de tamaño medio, de las razas cárnicas, con buenas conformaciones y un grado intermedio de engrasamiento. Por lo tanto, las características de la canal permiten agrupar las razas en función de su propósito productivo.
Intramuscular, subcutaneous and kidney knob fat depot fatty acid profiles were studied in 104male suckling kids
from seven Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, Pirenaica,
Malagueña and Murciano-Granadina. Kids were raised in the traditional production system on mother’s milk
and slaughtered at around 7 kg live weight. Differences were observed between dairy (Malagueña) and meat
breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, and Pirenaica). Malagueña
showed highermonounsaturated and conjugated linoleic fatty acid levels than the other breeds. Highest percentages
of saturated fatty acids were observed in meat breeds. For intramuscular fat depot, the range for desirable
fatty acids was 66.16–72.27% was. The influence of breed on fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, subcutaneous
and kidney knob fat depots studied was evident. Intramuscular fat depot is proposed as a differentiating factor
between dairy and meat breed goat kids, but not between meat breed kids.
Meat colour was evaluated in 141 male suckling kids from five Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza (BA), Blanca Celtibérica (BC),Moncaína (MO),Negra Serrana-Castiza (NE) and Pirenaica (PI). Kidswere slaughtered at 7.5 and 11.5 kg. pH and colour were measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. pH values did not differ significantly among breeds. Lightness tended to decrease and redness to increase asweight increased. BC and NE at lightweight and BC and BA at heavy weight were characterized by greater lightness, chroma and hue. At both weightsMOand PI were darker and showed lower values for chroma and hue. BA at lightweight and NE at heavy weightwere characterized by values thatwere between those of the former groups for all variables. Discriminant analysis based on colour and pH correctly classified 48.9% of the kids into their breed and slaughter weight.
The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n−6/n−3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each
breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences.